Research, Articles & Case Studies

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Research, Articles & Case Studies

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11 Most Commonly Requested CST Research Articles

17 Most Commonly Requested VM Research Articles

Article Description

Visceral Manipulation: Fact and Fantasy
(October 22nd, 2018)
By: Ramona C. Horton PT, MPT
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach,

This article discusses:

  • The history of visceral mobilization (VM) as a foundational technique within the realm of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMT).
  • The anatomy of the visceral fascia, its attachment to and effect on the somatic frame.
  • Efficacy for the treatment of the fascial network throughout the body as a component of manual physical therapy.
  • Evidence as it exists for VM and the scientific rational that would support the manual treatment of internal organs within the scope of physical therapy

The effect of a six-week osteopathic visceral manipulation in patents with non-specific chronic low back pain and functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
(October 23rd, 2018)
By: Walkyria Vilas Boas Fernandes, Cleofás Rodríguez Blanco, Fabiano Politti, Fernanda de Cordoba Lanza, Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli, and João Carlos Ferrari Corrêa
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach,

The proposed study is to analyze the effect of a six-week osteopathic visceral manipulation (OVM) program on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon in individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain and functional constipation. 

Helping to Relieve the Pain of Post-Surgical Breast Cancer with Myofascial/Craniosacral Techniques
(March 25th, 2005)
By: Aaron Dalton
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Health Practitioners can provide significant pain relief for post-surgical breast cancer patients by using a technique called myofascial release and craniosacral therapy. So said Meryle Richman, PT, MS, CST, owner of two Physical Therapy clinics in New York, speaking at a breast cancer rehabilitation seminar at Beth Israel Medical Center. The techniques consist of a series of hand positions with the therapist applying pressure in opposite directions with each hand - so while one hand applies gentle pressure toward the head, the other applies pressure toward the feet, to release tension and soften the facial tissues.   

The Role of the Vagus Nerve in Cancer Prognosis: A Systematic and a Comprehensive Review
(October 11th, 2018)
By: Marijke De Couck, Ralf Caers, David Spiegel, and Yori Gidron
Curriculum/s: CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

This article reviews the role of the vagus nerve in tumor modulation and cancer prognosis. 

Ultra-fast magnetic resonance encephalography of physiological brain activity - Glymphatic pulsation mechanisms?
(January 4th, 2016)
By: Vesa Kiviniemi, Xindi Wang, Vesa Korhonen, Tuila Keinanen, Timo Tuovinen, Joonas Autio, Pierre LeVan, Shella Keilholz, Yu-Feng Zang, Jurgen Hennig and Mailen Nedergaard
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

The Theory on the glymphatic convection mechanism of serebrospinal fluid holds that cardiac pulsations in part pump cerebrospinal fluid from the Peri-arterial spaces through the extracellular tissue into peri-venous spaces facilitated by aguaporin water channels. Since cardiac pulses cannot be the sole mechanism of glymphatic propulsion, we searched for additional cerebrospinal fluid pulsations in the human brain with ultra-fast magnetic resonance ecephalography. We detected three types of physiological mechanisms affecting cerebral cerebrospinal fluid pulsations: cardiac, respiratory, and very low frequency pulsations. The cardiac pulsations induce a negative magnetic resonance encephalography signal change in peri-arterial regions that extends centrifugally and covers the brain in I Hz cycles. The respiratory 0.3 Hz pulsations are centripetal periodical pulses that occur dominantly in peri-venous areas. The third type of pulsation was very low frequency (VLF 0.001-0.023hZ) and low frequency (LF 0.023-0.73 Hz) waves that both propagate with unique spatiotemporal patterns. Our findings using critically sampled magnetic resonance encephalography open a new view into cerebral fluid dynamics. Since glymphatic system failure may precede protein accumulations in diseases such as Alzheimer's dementia, this methodological advance offers a novel approach to image brain fluid dynamics that potentially can enable early detection and intervention in neurodegenerative diseases.  

Cranial osteopathy for childeren with cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial of the effects of cranial osteopathy on the health and wellbeing of children with cerebral palsy.
(October 10th, 2018)
By: Cerebra Research Unit
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Cerba asked researchers at the Peninsula Medical School to examine the existing scientific evidence on the benefits of cranial osteopathy for children with CP.


The Osteopathy for Children with Cerebral Palsy Trial (OCP Trial) examined the effectiveness of cranial osteopathy on movement, overall quality of life, sleep patterns, pain and fits in children with CP. 

Cranial sacral therapy for your dog
(April 17th, 2018)
By: Rachel Jones, DVM
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Cranial sacral therapy is a gentle hands - on form of energy healing. It's very subtle and simple, yet it can have profound effects. CST is a safe and non-invasive technique that brings with it many lasting beneficial results. By partnering it with traditional and other alternative therapies, your dog's innate healing abilities can be greatly enhanced. 

Complementary Therapies
(November 16th, 2018)
By: Katherine Larter, CST
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Sometimes all the body needs to activate the healing process is a gentle touch by a skilled hand - one that can read the body's signals and perceive where an underlying restriction may be inhibiting proper functioning.

CarnioSacral therapy works by helping the body's natural healing mechanisms dissipate the negative effects of stress on the cranial nervous system. This is accomplished through utilizing a physiological body system called the CarnioSacral system, which maintains the environment in which the central nervous system functions.

Barral Visceral Manipulation Case Study - 10 Pain Studies
(October 2nd, 2018)
By: Ivy Mok
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach,

10 Visceral Manipulation Case Studies

Barral Visceral Manipulation Case Study - 10 Pain Studies
(October 2nd, 2018)
By: Ivy Mok
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach,

10 Visceral Manipulation Case Studies

The Ricky Williams Concussion Project
(June 13th, 2013)
By: Gail Wetzler, PT, DPT, EDO, BI-D, Sally Fryer PT, DPT, CST-D, SIPT Cert. , George Visger, BS, Wildlife Biologist, TBI Consultant Retired Professional Football Player for the NFL
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

The purpose of this recent study is to determine if specific manual therapy techniques would provide an intervention with positive changes to enhance recovery or diminish long - term sequelae for post professional athletes with a history of concussions. 

Closing and Non-closing Sutures in 256 Crania of Known Age and Sex from Amsterdam (A.D. 1883-1909)*
(August 25th, 1983)
By: W.R.K. Perizonius
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

By dividing a Dutch reference collection into to sub samples of different ages, remarkable differences were found in the suture closure process in these sub samples. Spearman rank correlations demonstrated that mean endocranial closure stage is correlated with age in the ages below fifty but not in the ages above fifty. In the latter ages in the closure stage of individual suture sections showed positive as well as negative correlations with age at death. Therefore two different suture closure indices were introduced as age indicators, one for each sub sample. In both indices are correlated with age within their sub sample. It is supposed that the required division into sub samples may be realized with the help of other age indicators. As possible age indicator, especially when used together with others in "complex methods", suture closure has not yet served its turn.  

On the pulsatile nature of intracranial and spinal CSF- circulation demonstrated by MR imaging
(July 1st, 1994)
By: Greitz D, Franck A, Nordell B
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was studied in 24 healthy volunteers using grated MR phase imaging.

Craniosacral Rythem-Where does it stand?
(December 1st, 2011)
By: Supp, Georg, PT, Dip. MDT
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

In an article titles "Challenging Myths in Physical Therapy" (Harris 2001), this professor at the University of Vancouver, criticized physical therapists that were using craniosacral therapy in their treatment of musculoskeletal problems, despite the current lack of scientific evidence. Today - about ten years later - the body of evidence has not changed in favor of craniosacral therapy. Nevertheless, the demand for and offer of training courses in this area continues unabated. This article represents a critical personal review of this myth.  

Research Regarding Motion of the Cranial Bones
(September 3rd, 2018)
By: Moskalenko and Frymann
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Cranial bone motion has been one of the most controversial aspects of CranioSacral Therapy, but there is ample evidence that the cranial bones do rhythmically move a small, but definite amount. In summary, substantial support for life-long sutural patency and mobility of cranial sutures in healthy human beings is well established within the scientific and medical literature. Cranial bones can move small amounts, and so possess inherent rhythmic motion.  

Slow Rythmic Oscillations within the Human Cranium: Phenomenology, Origin, and Informational Signifigance
(March 1st, 2001)
By: Moskalenko, Y.E., Frymann, V., Weinstein, G.B
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Slow rhythmic oscillations in the human cranial cavity were studied using two noninvasive methods: the bio impedance method (volume ratios between liquid media in the cranial cavity) and trans cranial ultrasound Doppler echography (variation in the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery). The combination of these methods made it possible to estimate the intracranial hemodynamics. Simultaneous recording of these parameters and their spectral analysis were carried out in healthy subjects and patients with intra cranial hypertension syndrome and disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. The parameters were recorded at rest and immediately after manual (osteopathic) correction.

Detection of skull expansion with increased intracranial pressure
(November 2nd, 1981)
By: Heifetz MD, Weiss M
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

A technique is described which uses standard strain-gauge technology to detect skull expansion associated with increased intracranial pressure.

Your gut is directly connected to your brain, by a newly discovered neuron circut
(September 20th, 2018)
By: Emily Underwood
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

The human gut is lined with more than 00 million nerve cells- it's practically a brain unto itself. And indeed, the gut actually talks to the brain, releasing hormones into the bloodstream that, over the course of about 10 minutes, tell us how hungry it is, or that we shouldn't have eaten that entire pizza. But a new study reveals the gut has a much more direct connection to the brain through a neural circuit that allows it to transmit signals in mere seconds. The findings could lead to new treatments for obesity, eating disorders, and even depression and autism- all of which have been linked to a malfunctioning gut.

Age changes in the human frontozygomatic suture from 20 to 95 years.
(April 1st, 1976)
By: AM J Orthod
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

The frontozygomatic suture of human cadaver material was examined by a combination of histologic, radio graphic, and gross techniques to determine the aging changes in the suture and the approximate age at which sutural fusion occurs.

New cause of chronic stress identified in the brain
(September 13th, 2018)
By: Johannes Angerer, Medical University of Vienna
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

In an International collaboration between MedUni Vienna, Semmelweis University in Budapest, the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and ale University, researchers have identified a new process in the brain that is responsible for the delayed stress response on the long-term effects of stress: with a delay of 10 minutes after the "danger", the area of the brain that reacts to stress and responsible for further action is activated via the cerebral fluid. The findings could open up new perspectives for understanding the neuronal processes at play in post- traumatic stress disorder, chronic stress and burnout.  

Researchers unearth secret tunnels between the skull and the brain
(August 27th, 2018)
By: Herisson F
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

NIH- funded study suggests immune cells rush through channels to get to injured tissue quickly. Bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside most of our bones, produces red blood cells as well as immune cells that help fight off infections and heal injuries. According to a new study of mice and humans, tiny tunnels run from skull bone marrow to the ling of the brain and may provide a direct route for immune cells responding to injuries causes by stroke and other brain disorders.

Stress: It's Not in Your Head, it's in your Nervous System
(July 28th, 2018)
By: Melody Walford
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

Have you ever been told when you are stressed to stop worrying and just relax? That it's all in your head? It would be nice if it were that simple. But it's not. Physiology research shows that the stress response memory lives in your nervous system. This article discusses Traumatic Memory and How to Heal it. 

Key Reasons to get trained in CranioSacral Therapy
(September 6th, 2018)
By: Brandi Schlossberg
Curriculum/s: CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

When a professional massage therapist or bodyworker branches out and brings a whole new modality into his or her practice, there are usually several motivating factors for such a change. CranioSacral Therapy is the perfect example of the type of touch therapy massage therapists and bodyworkers are often motivated to learn and bring on board with their won practices. In this article we explore a few of the most common reasons professional massage therapists and bodyworkers choose to learn CranioSacral Therapy and integrate this gentle hands-on method into their own practices. 

Provide more relief from pain with CranioSacral Therapy
(February 1st, 2017)
By: John Matthew Upledger
Curriculum/s: CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

John Matthew Upledger (1960-2017) wrote this article for the MASSAGE Magazine's February 2012 issue, and we are republishing it here to honor his memory- and to educate massage therapists about the benefits of CranioSacral Therapy, the technique John Matthew's father, John E. Upledger. D.O., created. John Matthew Upldeger passed away on May 21, 2017. He had been involved in the Upledger Institute International for more than 30 years, in areas including clinical services and education.

Like massage therapy, CranioSacral Therapy is a gently end effective tool to have in a therapist's set of skills for pain relief. CranioSacral and massage both create more space in the body, increase flexibility and decrease pain. 

Manual Therapy for Alzheimer's and Dementia Patients
(April 19th, 2017)
By: Michael DeSocio Terry Pratchett
Curriculum/s: Visceral Manipulation / Neural Manipulation / New Manual Articular Approach, CranioSacral Therapy / SomatoEmotional Release,

DO you know somebody affected by Alzheimer's disease? I hope you don't. But with 5 million Alzheimer's patients in the United States alone, chances are somebody in your close circle is affected. You likely know how difficult it is to live with this illness. Alzheimer's may start with forgetfulness or the same questions repeated a little too frequently. This disease, the most common cause of dementia among other adults, first eats away memory, then thinking ability and eventually basic everyday skills like brushing your hair. Later, even the ability to recognize a loved one withers away. Over time, the person forgets to eat, drink or even breather. Alzheimer's disease is the sixth leading cause of death in America. Manual therapy is a cost effective, noninvasive, side-effect free therapeutic modality with a light touch which has many Physical, and mental benefits.